Small farmers’ planting is divorced from large-scale breeding
With the improvement of people’s living standards and the increase of demand for livestock products, the proportion of large-scale livestock and poultry breeding has increased rapidly, and the planting and breeding subjects have been gradually separated from the scale and spatial layout. Taking pig breeding as an example, the large-scale proportion of pigs with an annual slaughter number of more than 500 increased from 8% in 1998 to 47% in 2017, and the breeding proportion of pigs with an annual slaughter number of more than 50 and more than 100 increased from 23.2% and 14% in 1998 to 75.4% and 64.4% in 2017, respectively.
Extensive application method and low utilization efficiency of fecal nutrients:
A pig is a small organic fertilizer plant. According to statistics, the total amount of animal organic fertilizer (livestock manure) produced every year in China is about 14 million tons of pure nitrogen, about half of the annual production of chemical nitrogen fertilizer. In addition to nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements, livestock manure also has a large amount of organic matter. Therefore, returning manure to the field can improve the content of soil organic matter, improve soil physical and chemical properties, and contribute to the improvement of crop yield. The field application experiment of organic fertilizer in Northeast China showed that when the organic matter content of organic fertilizer was > 70.0% (dry basis) and the application rate was more than 6000 ± 1500 kg / hm2, the organic matter content of black soil could increase by 0.9-1.8 g / kg and the humic matter of 0-35 cm black soil could increase by more than 36.0%. After partially replacing chemical nitrogen fertilizer with livestock manure, the average yield of the three main grain crops in China can be increased by 6.8%, the nitrogen absorption of crops can be increased by 6.5%, and the nitrogen use efficiency can be increased by 10.4%. At the same time, NH3 volatilization loss, nitrogen leaching loss and nitrogen runoff loss can be reduced by 23%, 25.8% and 26.7% respectively.
Manure is different from chemical fertilizer. The nutrient content of livestock manure is low and the volume is large. In addition, the lack of agricultural facilities and equipment such as anaerobic fermentation facilities, pipe network facilities, biogas slurry (urine) storage tank, manure stacking and fermentation site, special manure transport vehicles, drip irrigation or sprinkler irrigation facilities, solid organic fertilizer application machinery and low industrialization level lead to inconvenient storage, transportation and application.
In addition, whether it is large-scale farms or small and medium-sized farmers, manure application mainly depends on experience. The ratio of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer is unreasonable, and the application time and amount are unscientific. In addition, at present, biogas residue and biogas slurry are mainly surface application, which not only reduces crop production, but also brings environmental pollution such as ammonia and odor. Therefore, farmers’ enthusiasm for the use of organic fertilizer is not high. Research shows that nearly 40% of livestock manure nitrogen applied to farmland is discharged into water and atmosphere due to unreasonable fertilization methods and lack of facilities and equipment.
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